Review for the final part two

Posted by Dino Annest on 8/8/2017

Sophie review part 2




- First to suggest that the bible be read critically


- Believed the world was a part of god


- Believed that thought and extension are two of gods features that we can percieve


- Thought god controlled the world through natural laws


-Only god was truly free


- Was persecuted for his beliefs, even by his own family



  1. Locke
    1. Empiricist
      1. What is in the mind was once in the senses
      2. Took quote from Aristotle -> aimed at Descarte
    2. God
      1. No one has experienced God ergo reason is being misused
    3. Essay Concering Human Understanding
      1. Where we get our ideas from
      2. Whether we can rely on what our senses tell us
    4. Where ideas come from
      1. Tabula Rasa/Blank slate (unfinished room)
        1. begin to sense things (objects added to room)
          1. taste, sight, hearing, fell, smell
          2. simple ideas formed from senses
        2. Thinking/reasoning (objects organized in room)
          1. Put together in heads to form new ideas
          2. Called reflection
      2. Simple Sensations
        1. Eating an apple
          1. Experience in series of steps
          2. Apple is green, smells fresh, tastes juicy, etc.
      3. Complex ideas
        1. Eating many apples
          1. Formed concept of apple
          2. Grouped together simple sensations and ideas
      4. Knowledge not traced back to a simple sensation is false ergo can be discarded
    5. Rely on what senses tell us
      1. Primary Qualities
        1. extension, weight, motion, number
        2. qualities reproduced objectively by mind
      2. Secondary Qualities
        1. sweet, sour, green, red
        2. mind cannot reproduce these as everyone else does: just as how person experiences them
    6. Extended Reality
      1. Man able to understand certain qualities
    7. Natural Right
      1. Certain ethical principles applied to everyone
    8. God
      1. Rationalistic Feature of God Existing: created by man’s reason


-The Greeks were great believers in fatalism.

-fatalism- belief that whatever happens is predestined

-oracle at delphi- Apollo’s mouth piece, learn your fate and get advice.

“know thyself”- you are human and your fate is predestined. (you are mortal)

-sacrifice for divine intervention.  Sickness and war were punishment from the gods.

-Hippocrates: founder of medical ethics/rights of the patient.

            -do what is right for the patient

            -man can maintain good health through balance and moderation.


-lived in Athens

-died for his beliefs---jesus!

-SOCRATIC IRONY!-didn’t just enforce info into his students, he discussed.  He had conversations with them in order to allow them to learn on their own and relate to what was being taught to them on a more personal level.


-the smartest person is someone who knows that they don’t know everything

-and ignorant person is one who knows a little, but gives off the impression that he/she knows everything.

-always seeking knowledge.

-spoke through plato, who then wrote everything down.

- you can’t be happy if you’re doing something you know is innately wrong.

-insight comes from within.  Philosophies based on reason.

-“sophists”-  means wise and informed person.  Group of itinerant teachers.

-critical of common mythology

-disagreed with the sophists because they were motivated by money and thought they knew everything.



-center of Greek culture

-Socrates would converse with townspeople in the square

-founding of European civilization took place in Athens

Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)


  • Presented theory of organic evolution
  • A naturalistic scientists
  • Published Origin of Species in 1859 to present his ideas on evolution
  • Darwin’s major ideas were that all plants and animals had evolved from earlier forms and that this process occurs through natural selection
  • Darwin challenged the creation story of the bible and ideas of Christianity
  • Darwin started to think about the artificial selection that humans impose on domestic animals and came up with the idea that nature does the same thing
  • Survival of the fittest  - animals quickly adapting to the new environment and win the competition between other animals are able to pass on its genes
  • Animals are not “better” because they survive but shows that they are better suited for the specific environment
  • Through the examples such as finches and giraffes Darwin was able to present that the environment could result mutations for the living species – with different characteristics of an animal
  • Darwin started other scientists to develop further studies on evolution




  • Agnostic-didn’t believe you could prove/disprove God
  • What do you know? Proof through examples (ideas)
  • Ego is constantly changing “I”
  • Impressions are the firsthand experiences, ideas are the memory of the impressions
  • Complex ideas combine simple ones like humans and wings = angels
  • Knowledge comes from impressions
  • We don’t know for sure that laws of nature are unbreakable
  • We impose the idea of cause and effect on the world
  • We can’t see the cause that makes the stone fall, but we know it happens
  • Look at the world as a child, starting point to view the world
  • We act on our feelings and not our reason, he was an empiricist
  • We should be receptive to new experiences
  • Just because we see something happen, it does not mean we should take for granted that it will happen again
  • We have a limited knowledge of the world

Natural Philosophers:

-answer questions about the natural world and how it works.

-empiricists- used senses


-established the four basic elements: fire, water, air, earth

-nothing changes

-senses are very reliable.


-developed idea of atoms

-everyone is guided by universal reason and universal law.

-disagreed with Empedocles (he thought that nature was in constant change)


Democritus: “the lego guy”


-developed atomic theory

-atoms- firm, solid, immutable, indivisible, invisible, inseparable, and you can’t see them.

-the senses are feeling the movement of atoms

-no eternal soul

-human soul comprised of “soul atoms”


Berkeley questioned even more than the other empiricists. He suggested that even external reality itself may have no substance. Berkeley felt that all of our feelings and ideas can stem from our souls—just like when we are dreaming. But he also thought that all of external reality could come from another spirit. Berkeley believed that we exist only in God's mind. And Alberto thinks that they exist only in Albert Knags mind. That is the explanation for everything that has been happening to them. He thinks that Hilde's father is writing or telling their story for his daughter's amusement. Alberto calls Sophie Hilde a few more times and then lightning flashes and Sophie runs out of the house.

Sophie's World presents us with the possibility that our existence may not really be what we believe it to be.  Berkeley points out that we cannot be sure even of the world. In a way, such an uncertainty only makes life itself seem more magical