THE LAST DOC TO COMPLETEPosted by Dino Annest on 8/22/2017
50. The Golden Mean
52. The Oracle at Delphi
57. The Natural Philosophers
59 The Myth of the Cave
61. Sartre’s Concept of “Existence”
62. Karl Marx
64. Sartre’s concept of essence
A. Man’s conscious and creative act
B. Borders between countries and cultures become erased and merge into a witch’s cauldron of philosophies and ideas
C. Belief that life has no meaning and anything is permissible
D. Whatever happens is predestined
E. Apollo’s mouthpiece that told ancient Greeks of their fate
F. Taught by asking questions and forcing to people to use common sense.
G. Simply being alive
H. Believed everything is made after an eternal and immutable mold.
I. A religious ceremony where humans act against evil
J. Earliest Greek Philosophers that used scientific reasoning by observing the world and trying to figure out how it began.
K. A wise person who made money by teaching about man and his place in society.
L. A sense of mortal dread
M. Philosophers who said “ Seek pleasure but weigh the side effects of that pleasure.”
N. “We must be neither cowardly nor rash. Through balance and temperance we can live a healthy and happy life”
O. True happiness is not found in material things. We should live a life of total frugality and simplicity.
P. Europe’s first biologist
Q. All psychological ailments have physical causes.
R. Believed in the universal law of nature and that man must accept his destiny, even sickness and death as inevitable.
S. Philosopher’s quest from shadowy images to true ideas. (also describe’s Socrates’ death)
T. Tell me what you do and I’ll tell you who you are. Your labor affects your consciousness.
66. Immanuel Kant
69. St. Thomas Acquinas
70. memento mori
74. The Baroque
75. John Locke
80. Baruch Spinoza
81. St Augustine
A. Uses experience to find knowledge
B. God is everywhere
C. Renaissance Philosophy that placed a supreme importance on man in the universe
D. British empiricist who relied on his senses.
E. Medieval philosopher that adopted Aristotle’s ideas and stated that both reason and faith can lead to the truth
F. 17th Century period characterized by tension and religious seclusion
G. Philosophy that everything is spiritual in nature
H. Baroque philosopher that challenged the notion that the bible came directly from God.
I. Adopted Plato’s ideas and stated that the world of ideas is created by God.
J. We exist only in the mind of God
K. Baroque philospher that used doubt as a method and challenged what he truly knew.
L. Philosophy that everythinconsist of particles and matter.
M. There exist a division between mind and matter, thought and reality.
N. Uses reason to find knowledge
O. Drew a dividing line between the object itself and the object as it appears to me. We can never have exact knowledge of things in themselves.
P. Remember that you will die
Q Believed that there were three stages in life: aesthetic, ethical and religious
one of the last two docs to complete (with friends)Posted by Dino Annest on 8/22/2017
Sophie’s World Quiz: The Renaissance name: _______________________________
1. Sophie dreams about whom? ___________________________
2. When she awakens, she finds what? ________________________________________
3. When did the Renaissance start? _________________
4. The word “renaissance” means:
a. “Age of artists”
d. “knowledge of everything”
5. Three inventions were preconditions for the Renaissance. Name 2 of them:
6. During the Renaissance, the economic system changed from a _______________ economy to
a ______________________ economy.
7. What is geocentric? __________________________________________________
What is heliocentric? _________________________________________________
8. A characteristic feature of Luther’s reforms was his emphasis on:
a. The study of Greek & Latin by all Protestants in order to better understand the Bible.
b. Maintaining a strong connection with the RomanCatholic Church.
c. The establishment of the understanding that giles & annest are truly renaissance men.
d. Mankind may earn God’s grace by obtaining “indulgences” from the Church
e. The individual and the individual’s personal relationship to God.
9. Match the scientist with the theory:
a. Kepler ___ The heliocentric world picture
b. Galileo ___ Law of Universal Gravitation
c. Newton ___ elliptical (or oval) orbits of planets
d. Copernicus ___ Law of Inertia (bodies, rest, & motion)
something like your finalPosted by Dino Annest on 8/8/2017
Sophie’s World - The Final name________________________________
- Teacher of Alexander: a. Plato b. Aristotle c. Socrates d. Democritus e. the Sophists
- Teacher of Aristotle: a. Plato b. Alexander c. Socrates d. Democritus e. Hippocrates
- “One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing.”
- Plato b. Aristotle c. Socrates d. Democritus e. The Oracle at Delphi
- Teacher of Plato: a. Alexander b. Aristotle c. Socrates d. Democritus e. Hippocrates
- Natural philosophers focused on an understanding of ___ rather than on ___ to explain their lives.
- myths/science b. nature/reason c. reason/senses d. nature/myths e. senses/reason
- The greatest long term pleasure is good, taking into account negative results of that pleasure:
- Hedonists b. Sophists c. Stoics d. Epicureans e. Cynics
The following (a-e) are to be used (once each) with questions 7-11
- tabula rasa b. cogito ergo sum c. know thyself
- man cannot prove or disprove God's existence. e. God is dead.
- Man is mortal- your life is predetermined
- Nietzsche 10. Hume
- John Locke 11. Descartes' proof that he exists
the following (a-e) are to be used once each as answers for questions 12-16
- memento mori b. credo quia absurdum c. carpe deim d. essence e. existence
- Remember that you must die 15. Being alive
- Seize the day 16. Man’s conscious and creative act of choosing and living.
_ the following (a-e) are to be used once each as answers for questions 17-21
- nihilism b. fatalism c. mechanism d. dynamic(s) e. synthesis
- resolution of opposing ideas in dialectic process
- life has no meaning and anything is permissible
- all psychological ailments have a physical cause within the body
- whatever happens is predestined
- tension between opposites that allows the process to work
- The categorical imperative essentially states that:
- there are a list of categories for every action .
- if a person wishes to act morally, there is a universal law that must be followed
- man has free will to decide right from wrong in all actions
- morality is subjective and situationally dependent
the following (a-e) are to be used once each as answers for questions 23-27
- antithesis b. neurosis c. repression d. id e. zeitgeist
- pushing down desires and forgetting them
- the world spirit or spirit of the times 26. conflict between desire and guilt
- connected with pleasure and instinct 27. the negation of the original idea
- The Renaissance, a “rebirth of humanism,” spread because of three main inventions, one is “modern”
firearms, the two other main inventions are:
- maps and gun powder b. printing press and the compass c. telescope and microscope
- architecture and the globe e. empirical method and monetary systems
- The term "ego defense mechanism" is best described as:
- the id succumbs to impulses and desires d. the ego overrides cultural norms to satisfy the ego
- the ego satisfies the id by acceptable means e. neurotic anxiety
- the ego appeases the superego by punishing the id
- all of the following were major points of the Enlightenment philosophers except:
- return to nature c. opposition to authority e. surrealism
- human rights d. rationalism
for #31-37, answer (a) if true, and (b) if false:
- According to Rousseau, civilization is the salvation of man
- 44. According to Locke, man in nature is essentially in a state of war.
- Kant uses the analogy of glasses to show that our senses affect our reason.
- Hume's philosophy centers on how a child experiences the world
- Kant's idea of the small t is that which is true for the individual
- According to Hegel, the rights of the individual are subordinate to the needs of the state.
- In the myth, Plato is “illustrating the philosopher’s road from shadowy images to the true ideas.”
the following (a-e) are to be used once each as answers for questions 38-42
- dualism b. the Oracle c. rationalism d. Acropolis e. empiricism
- Apollo’s mouthpiece that told ancient Greeks about their fate.
- uses experience to find knowledge 41. the city on a hill
- Plato’s idea of a conflict between spirit and matter 42. Only reason leads to knowledge
- During the Renaissance, which important entity was forced to give up their exclusive hold on the
dissemination of information?
- the government b. the church c. schools d. philosophers e. heretics
the following (a-e) are to be used as answers for questions 44-49
- Aristotle b. Marx c. Berkeley d. Kant e. Locke
- Natural Rights 47. Workers of the world, unite!
- Europe's first biologist 48. Bishop who found rational justification for God's existence
- the categorical imperative 49. a revolution of the proletariat
50."Natural Selection": a. Locke b. Hobbes c. de Beauvoir d. Marx e. Darwin
- "The Second Sex": a. Rousseau b. de Beauvoir c. Aristotle d. Marx e. Camus
- According to Thomas Aquinas, two paths can be used to find truth:
- reason/senses b. senses/faith c. reason/nature d. reason/faith e. reason/reflection
- Pantheism is the belief that: a. God is all-knowing b. man is mortal c. life is pre-destined
- God is everywhere e. you need no material goods to be happy
Review for the final part twoPosted by Dino Annest on 8/8/2017
Sophie review part 2
- First to suggest that the bible be read critically
- Believed the world was a part of god
- Believed that thought and extension are two of gods features that we can percieve
- Thought god controlled the world through natural laws
-Only god was truly free
- Was persecuted for his beliefs, even by his own family
- What is in the mind was once in the senses
- Took quote from Aristotle -> aimed at Descarte
- No one has experienced God ergo reason is being misused
- Essay Concering Human Understanding
- Where we get our ideas from
- Whether we can rely on what our senses tell us
- Where ideas come from
- Tabula Rasa/Blank slate (unfinished room)
- begin to sense things (objects added to room)
- taste, sight, hearing, fell, smell
- simple ideas formed from senses
- Thinking/reasoning (objects organized in room)
- Put together in heads to form new ideas
- Called reflection
- Simple Sensations
- Eating an apple
- Experience in series of steps
- Apple is green, smells fresh, tastes juicy, etc.
- Complex ideas
- Eating many apples
- Formed concept of apple
- Grouped together simple sensations and ideas
- Knowledge not traced back to a simple sensation is false ergo can be discarded
- Rely on what senses tell us
- Primary Qualities
- extension, weight, motion, number
- qualities reproduced objectively by mind
- Secondary Qualities
- sweet, sour, green, red
- mind cannot reproduce these as everyone else does: just as how person experiences them
- Extended Reality
- Man able to understand certain qualities
- Natural Right
- Certain ethical principles applied to everyone
- Rationalistic Feature of God Existing: created by man’s reason
-The Greeks were great believers in fatalism.
-fatalism- belief that whatever happens is predestined
-oracle at delphi- Apollo’s mouth piece, learn your fate and get advice.
“know thyself”- you are human and your fate is predestined. (you are mortal)
-sacrifice for divine intervention. Sickness and war were punishment from the gods.
-Hippocrates: founder of medical ethics/rights of the patient.
-do what is right for the patient
-man can maintain good health through balance and moderation.
-lived in Athens
-died for his beliefs---jesus!
-SOCRATIC IRONY!-didn’t just enforce info into his students, he discussed. He had conversations with them in order to allow them to learn on their own and relate to what was being taught to them on a more personal level.
-the smartest person is someone who knows that they don’t know everything
-and ignorant person is one who knows a little, but gives off the impression that he/she knows everything.
-always seeking knowledge.
-spoke through plato, who then wrote everything down.
- you can’t be happy if you’re doing something you know is innately wrong.
-insight comes from within. Philosophies based on reason.
-“sophists”- means wise and informed person. Group of itinerant teachers.
-critical of common mythology
-disagreed with the sophists because they were motivated by money and thought they knew everything.
-center of Greek culture
-Socrates would converse with townspeople in the square
-founding of European civilization took place in Athens
Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)
- Presented theory of organic evolution
- A naturalistic scientists
- Published Origin of Species in 1859 to present his ideas on evolution
- Darwin’s major ideas were that all plants and animals had evolved from earlier forms and that this process occurs through natural selection
- Darwin challenged the creation story of the bible and ideas of Christianity
- Darwin started to think about the artificial selection that humans impose on domestic animals and came up with the idea that nature does the same thing
- Survival of the fittest - animals quickly adapting to the new environment and win the competition between other animals are able to pass on its genes
- Animals are not “better” because they survive but shows that they are better suited for the specific environment
- Through the examples such as finches and giraffes Darwin was able to present that the environment could result mutations for the living species – with different characteristics of an animal
- Darwin started other scientists to develop further studies on evolution
- Agnostic-didn’t believe you could prove/disprove God
- What do you know? Proof through examples (ideas)
- Ego is constantly changing “I”
- Impressions are the firsthand experiences, ideas are the memory of the impressions
- Complex ideas combine simple ones like humans and wings = angels
- Knowledge comes from impressions
- We don’t know for sure that laws of nature are unbreakable
- We impose the idea of cause and effect on the world
- We can’t see the cause that makes the stone fall, but we know it happens
- Look at the world as a child, starting point to view the world
- We act on our feelings and not our reason, he was an empiricist
- We should be receptive to new experiences
- Just because we see something happen, it does not mean we should take for granted that it will happen again
- We have a limited knowledge of the world
-answer questions about the natural world and how it works.
-empiricists- used senses
-established the four basic elements: fire, water, air, earth
-senses are very reliable.
-developed idea of atoms
-everyone is guided by universal reason and universal law.
-disagreed with Empedocles (he thought that nature was in constant change)
Democritus: “the lego guy”
-developed atomic theory
-atoms- firm, solid, immutable, indivisible, invisible, inseparable, and you can’t see them.
-the senses are feeling the movement of atoms
-no eternal soul
-human soul comprised of “soul atoms”
Berkeley questioned even more than the other empiricists. He suggested that even external reality itself may have no substance. Berkeley felt that all of our feelings and ideas can stem from our soulsâ€”just like when we are dreaming. But he also thought that all of external reality could come from another spirit. Berkeley believed that we exist only in God's mind. And Alberto thinks that they exist only in Albert Knags mind. That is the explanation for everything that has been happening to them. He thinks that Hilde's father is writing or telling their story for his daughter's amusement. Alberto calls Sophie Hilde a few more times and then lightning flashes and Sophie runs out of the house.
Sophie's World presents us with the possibility that our existence may not really be what we believe it to be. Berkeley points out that we cannot be sure even of the world. In a way, such an uncertainty only makes life itself seem more magical
Review for the final part onePosted by Dino Annest on 8/8/2017
Sophie Final Review (part 1)
The Socratic method of learning and teaching The Acropolis & the Parthenon
The central question of Medieval philosophy Europe's first biologist
the analogy of glasses & individual perspective tabula rasa
The oracle at Delphi (& the saying above the temple entryway)
Know the author, the remainder, and the meaning of the following quote/concept:
All nature is composed of four basic _______________________
Nature consists of tiny blocks that can ______________________________
he is wisest who ____________________________________.
Women are incomplete _______________
Man is corrupted by _____________________
I think, therefore ________________________
Ideas vs. _______________
the myth of the cave dweller.
One cannot rely on his/her senses because __________________________
(applies to more than one philosopher, but go with the Greek)
Everything is made after a timeless mold or form that is ____________ & ________________
We should seek pleasure but weigh ___________________________________________
Through _____________ & _________________, we can live a healthy and happy life.
True happiness is not found in ____________ things. We should live a life of frugality and ______________
Everything in nature has a mechanical explanation.
Man must accept his destiny, even sickness and death, as an inevitable part of nature.
Be able to contrast:
Aristotle & Plato Locke & Descartes
Descartes and Spinoza Hume & Descartes
Know the similarities between:
Descartes & Socrates
Know who below believes in God or believes he can prove/disprove the existence of (a) God:
Aristotle Kant Descartes
Thomas Aquinas Spinoza Berkeley
be able to define/explain: (according to any philosopher who may have defined the term/terms)
form & substance Fatalism Sophists
sensation & reflection Stoics Natural Philosophers
rationalists & empiricists Hellenism Thor
deism Cynics Pantheism
dualism (and who IS a dualist?) myth materialism
Epicureans rite Humanism
The Truth vs. Kierkegaard's truth the Baroque Idealism
St. Augustine on:
good and evil history
creation Kingdom of God
Hume's two types of perception
Hume on cause and effect
Marx Hegel KierkegaardPosted by Dino Annest on 7/26/2017
Sophie Quiz Marx name______________________________________
1. What two characters does Sophie run into in the forest?
2. Alberto said that the great philosophical systems ended with Hegel. Marx’s theories were not “theoretical” philosophy, but a philosophy of ______________________.
3. For Hegel, spiritual changes are what changes the world. What was it for Marx?
4. What forms the bases of society?
__________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________________
5. Give three examples of the superstructure of society:
1. ___________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. __________________________
6. Marx said, “the history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of _____________ ___________________.”
7. What is the first crucial phrase of the Communist Manifesto? (think about the old world…)
8. What is the final phrase of the Communist Manifesto?
____________________ _____ ______ ____________ _______________!
9. Define the following terms according to Marx:
10. How does Capitalism eventually destroy itself?
11. According to Marx, what follows the end of capitalism?____________________ _________________________, which eventually leads to a ___________________ society.
12. Name two issues Marx was mistaken on
13.What example did the moral philosopher John Rawls use to illustrate a society with “justice existing among equals.”
Hegelian Philosophy Name:
1. At the core of Hegel’s philosophy is the _________ __________ (English term here, not German), which represents "the sum of human __________________", thought and culture.
2. Hegel claimed that reason was both __________________ and ___________________.
3. Earlier philosophers believed that human knowledge was ______________. Hegel, on the
other hand, believed that philosophy _____________.
4. One analogy that Hegel provides is that history is a ____________. Explain why this comparison is appropriate: ______________________________________________________
5. For Hegel, you cannot say that Plato was wrong or right or that the thinkers of the Renaissance were wrong or right because human reason is ________________.
6. For Hegel, the ultimate or absolute ideas is for the process (or spirit) to reach the state of _________ _______________ or ____________.
7. Hegel developed a model for how ideas progress and change. He calls this the ____________ process. The three stages of this process are: ______________ _____________ and _______________.
8. What decides whether a theory or idea is right or wrong? _______________
9. What is one theory of Hegel’s that proved to be dead wrong? _______________________
10. The theory of _____________ logic states that there are profound truths whose opposites are equally right.
11. T/F According to Hegel, the rights of the individal are subordinate to the needs of the state.
Sophie’s World Kierkegaard Name________ ______________
1. What specific theory/concept was Kierkegaard infuriated by?
2. Who came to the door when Alberto and Sophie were talking?
3. What did the person (above) have for Sophie?
4. How do these gifts affect Sophie? Explain in brief.
5. Why was Kierkegaard an outcast and an object of scorn in Danish society?
6. What is the primary focus of an existential thinker?
7. What is the difference between THE TRUTH and Kierkegaard’s truth?
THE TRUTH (from Hegel – hint: where the river is heading):
8. Kierkegaard believed that truth was ________________-_________________
9. What is the only way the individual can react to the big question of God’s (or Gods‘) existence and the personal question of God’s (or Gods‘) existence?
10. How can you know if someone loves you? Is there a way to prove this fact like 2 +2 = 4?
11. Can God be proven with in the bounds of rationality? Yes No
Why or why not?
12. What does “credo quia absurdum” mean?
In ONE sentence, tell what it means to Kierkegaard’s “spiritual evolution”: involves abandoning rational systems of thought because faith inherently requires some irrationality.
12A. Which of the following did Kierkegaard do?
A. Divorced his wife in public because she was a Sunday Christian
B. Profited from stories under a pseudonym that taught citizens of Denmark how to reach the third stage
C. Published stories in which the protagonist moves from the first to the second stage.
D. Worked as a Catholic lay minister, but only on weekends.
E. Wrote stories that told of the Sisyphean challenges of Christendom, and how to avoid them
13. Name and describe Kierkegaard’s three stages of life?
BerkeleyPosted by Dino Annest on 7/20/2017
Sophie Bears Down on Berkeley!
Empiricists Leave Lasting Impression!
(Trinity College, Ireland) - George Berkeley, whose professional position was ___________________, stated that the only things that exist are those we ______________________. Still, we do not perceive _______________________ or _______________________. Author Jostein Gaarder used a table to explain this point by having Sophie ________________________________________________________
Berkeley believed that all our ideas have a cause beyond our ______________________________, but this cause is not of a ___________________ nature, it is _____________________________.
The man after whom the fabulous city of Berkeley, California, is named went on to state that everything that we see and feel is an effect of ____________ __________________, adding that we only exist in ______ _________ ____ _______.
Alberto posits that “-for you and me- this ‘will or spirit’ that is the ‘cause of everything in everything’ could be _______________ ____________________.
What is Bjerkeley? _______________________________________.
What can you only do with this ‘magic’ mirror, according to Hilde’s father? _____________________
Spinoza & LockePosted by Dino Annest on 7/20/2017
Sophie meets Spinoza: a quiz in one act name_____________________________
Sr. Block annest
0. What religion was Spinoza? __________________________
1. By utilizing a historico-critical interpretation of the Bible, Spinoza says:
a. the historical element of the Bible can be applied as an absolute to philosophical studies
b. the Bible must first be examined as historical document; then it may be applied to
c. the Bible is not inspired by God down to the letter; we must bear in mind the period of
time in which it was written.
d. we must analyze the context of the Bible as it is interpreted through various centuries
before we can believe it.
2. Spinoza made a meager living by performing what service? (hint: think”perspective”)
3. Spinoza holds that God did not create the world in order to stand outside it; rather God ________ the world and the world _____________ _____________ God.
4. Descartes admitted two substances, ______________, and ________________. Spinoza stated that there is only one, ____________ or _____________. This makes Spinoza a ________________, as opposed to Plato and Descartes, who were ___________________s.
5. This one reality has two attributes. God, or nature, reveals itself as
_____________________ and _______________________.
6. We only possess free will to the extent that ___________ and our
______________________ allow us.
Wednesday, 7 January, 1751 The Dinophilo Examiner “Free to all free thinkers”
We’re Dialed Publishing, Inc.
Sophie Lockes Down Position on Philosophy!
Empiricists Leave Lasting Impression!
(London, UK) - The Empiricists, also known as the “philosophers of ________________”, have held to the belief that all knowledge of the world is derived from ______ ______________. Ancient philosopher ________________has been quoted as saying “there is nothing in __________except what was first ____ ____ _________s.” Locke has repeated these words and aims them at fellow philosopher __________________, who
This latin term, which means ___________ ________ has caused the author of “Sophie’s World” to draw comparisons. Specifically, he writes that the mind before any sensory input is much like ______________ _______________________________. He adds that as humans begin to smell, taste, feel and hear, ______ ______________________arise. When these are worked on by thinking, reasoning, believing, and doubting, we have reached the process of ___________________.
The author gives the example of an apple, whose simple sensations include recognizing the ________ __________, the fresh scent, and the juicy taste combine to form _________ _________, namely an __________. Locke concludes that knowledge that cannot be trace back to __ _________ _____________ must be _______ knowledge and therefore rejected.
Primary vs. Secondary Qualities!
Primary qualities of an object are stated by Locke as being ________, ______, and __________. Secondary (or subjective) qualities include __________ __________, and __________.
Locke concluded by stating that there are certain ethical principles that apply to everyone, which he called a _____________ _______.
Louis the XIV exclaimed “__ ___ ____ ________!”, which, according to Locke’s theory of the division of powers, makes Louis an ____________ ____________. According to Locke in that case, what must happen to Louis? -(BE SPECIFIC!) ______________________________________________________________
Descartes quiz due Tuesday, 7-18Posted by Dino Annest on 7/16/2017
Sophie thinks about Descartes name_______________________________
Descartes’ primary employment was as a ____________________________________; in fact, he invented ________________________________ ______________________, which we all use on graphs today.
Philosophically, he believed that certain knowledge is only attained through reason; he was therefore a _____________________, as opposed to an _______________________.
According to Descartes, the mind works with the body as 2 separate but ______________ entities (like two clocks each keeping perfect time). These
entities make up all reality. HIS terms for these two elements are ________________ & ______________________.
He is often called the father of ____________________ ___________________________________________.
Descartes began his philosophical quest by first doing what? ______________________ _______________________________.
He concluded that he is at least ______________________, which leads him to state that
_______________________________________________________. This phrase in Latin: __________________________________________.
How does Descartes argue for the existence of God? _________________________________________________________________________
In what period/age did Descartes live? ______________________________
How was Descartes like Plato? (think category)_________________________________
Descartes proves that extended reality exists by stating that God is
Notes for the midtermPosted by Dino Annest on 7/7/2017
for the midtern, know:
the four elements proposed by Empedocles
teleological vs deontological
rationalist vs empiricist
fate and predeterminism - the oracle at delphi and the story of oedipus.
hippocrates - the oath and his prescription for a healthy life.
socrates - he is wisest . . ., the unexamined life is not worth living, know socratic dialogue/socratic method, where did he teach? what happened to him?
what event changed Plato's life?
Plato - duality (what are the two worlds?), what is innate knowledge? what is the cookie cutter? the myth/allegory of the cave, the chart of head, thorax, abdomen
Aristotle - classifications/biology, there is nothing in the mind . . ., women and men (as opposed to Plato's view of same), the three forms of happiness, the golden mean, what does it mean to live a good life?
Alexander - hellenism vs hellenic, syncretism & the introduction of cultural trade,
the cynics, diogenes, the stoics, the epicureans, the hedonists, the mystics, the velvet underground.
augustine and aquinas - who was trying to reconcile a greek philosopher with the teachings of the church? which ones?